The ODI consists of 10 items on the degree of severity to which back (or leg) trouble has affected the ability to manage in everyday life. The 10 sections cover the pain and the daily function (including pain intensity, personal hygiene, lifting, walking, sitting, standing, sleeping, sexual activity, social activity, and traveling). Each item is rated on a 6-point scale (0–5); the higher score means the higher level of disability related to LBP.
The ORT tool is a quick report used as an opioid risk assessment, determining the risk of opioid abuse in patients that have chronic pain.
The report can be administered and scored in less than a minute. Patients that are categorized as high-risk through the test will be considered likely to show abusive drug-related behavior. ORT has been validated to be used on both male and female patients.
A preliminary study on patients who were prescribed opioids for chronic pain showed that the ORT tool was a highly accurate way to determine risk in patients for their opioid-related abuse potential.
The BAPSI is used to screen for global disability and psychological distress.
The BAPSI instrument is used with medical patients whose primary complaint is persistent, nonmalignant pain associated with emotional and behavioral debilitation (e.g., chronic lumbar pain).
Patients must be able to read and understand English or Spanish at the 7th to 8th grade reading level. Patients also need to be cognitively intact, have sufficient stamina and concentration, and capable of making simple computer keystrokes and swipes.
The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as “0” (not at all) to “3” (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients.
The Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain - Revised (SOAPP-R) is a 24-item questionnaire that has been validated as a measure of risk of opioid abuse. The original Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP) is a conceptually derived self-report questionnaire designed to predict aberrant medication-related behaviors among chronic pain patients considered for long-term opioid therapy.
The Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) is a brief patient self-assessment to monitor chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. The COMM was developed with guidance from a group of pain and addiction experts and input from pain management clinicians in the field.
The Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) is a self-report measure of risk for aberrant medication related behavior among persons with chronic pain who are prescribed opioids for pain. It was developed to complement predictive screeners of opioid misuse potential and improve a clinician's ability to periodically assess a patient's risk for opioid misuse.
The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was developed in 1989 by Howard Vernon. The Index was developed as a modification of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index with the permission of the original author (J. Fairbank, 1980). It is a patient-completed, condition-specific functional status questionnaire with 10 items including pain, personal care, lifting, reading, headaches, concentration, work, driving, sleeping and recreation. In 1991, Vernon and Mior published the results of a study of reliability and validity in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics.
Since then, approximately ten articles have appeared in the indexed literature on the NDI. All of these studies have confirmed the original reports of a high level of reliability and validity. We currently know that the NDI consists of one factor - “physical disability” - although NDI scores correlate well with SF-36 mental component scores as well. We know that the minimum detectable score and the minimal clinically important difference amounts to the same figure - 5 NDI points.
The NDI has become a standard instrument for measuring self-rated disability due to neck pain and is used by clinicians and researchers alike.
As part of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), a multi-year, multi-site study to explain variations in patient outcomes, RAND developed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). SF-36 is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures. These measures rely upon patient self-reporting and are now widely utilized by managed care organizations and by Medicare for routine monitoring and assessment of care outcomes in adult patients.
The Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-Short Form (POQ-SF) is a 20-item inventory. There are 19 primary pain items rated on a 11point (0-10) Likert-type scale and one demographical question.
These 19 items are identical to those found in the longer and original version of the instrument, the POQ-VA. The present briefer form of this questionnaire excludes a number of items relating to such things as patient history, opioid use, treatment satisfaction, and other demographics.
Its original purpose was to function as a multi-dimensional measure of pain in veterans to keep pace with the emergence of the biopsychosocial model of pain. It has proven to be a reliable, valid, and robust measure of the diverse cluster of symptoms associated with pain.
The Mental Health Screening Form-III (MHSF-III) is a 17-item instrument designed as a mental health screening tool for clients seeking admission to substance abuse treatment programs. Preliminary examination of the instrument has shown it to be reliable and valid.
The FunctionalRx assessment address 6 key categories, these categories are taken from the 5th edition of the APA guidelines; activities of daily living, social functioning persistence/pace/concentration, complex or work like settings, psychological functioning, addiction risk or substance abuse. This assessment addresses patient functioning in conjunction with psychosocial behavior. The instrument consists of 32 questions and is scored using a 100% scale.
The patient was administered the Pain Disability Report-Short Form (PDR-SF) to evaluate his/her level of pain-related disability. Disability refers to changes in a patient's ability to engage in activities and experience a wide range of behaviors, mood states, and thoughts as the result of some physically impairing condition such as persistent pain.
Disability and physical impairment are often weakly associated, especially in patients with chronic conditions. Therefore, a more precise and independent understanding of the patient's level of disability is important.
The PDR-SF should be viewed as a component of a comprehensive assessment protocol and cannot be judged definitively. The results of the PDR-SF need to be combined with additional data drawn from the clinical interview and other assessment devices.
The PDR-SF should be used as an initial screening instrument to assist in treatment planning and to measure treatment progress and outcome.
The QuickDASH outcome measure is a valid and reliable 11 question instrument for assessing disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand.
The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) is a questionnaire containing 20 questions about a person’s ability to perform everyday tasks. The LEFS can be used by clinicians as a measure of patients' initial function, ongoing progress and outcome, as well as to set functional goals. The LEFS can be used to evaluate the functional impairment of a patient with a disorder of one or both lower extremities. It can be used to monitor the patient over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention.
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